For a Kinder, Gentler Society
Killing for Land in Early California
Indian Blood at Round Valley
  • Frank H. Baumgardner III
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Killing for Land in Early California.  Indian Blood at Round Valley
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The California frontier wars gave land and gold to Whites and reservations to the few surviving Native Americans. Through eyewitness accounts this highly researched work brings to light the graft, greed, and conflicting roles played by the US Army, the State Legislature and the US Congress.

About the Author

Frank H. Baumgardner III holds an MA in American History from San Jose State University and did postgraduate work in history at University of California-Santa Barbara. He has published articles in California Historian and two books with Algora focusing on early California history.

About the Book

The Round Valley wars of California were an ugly episode in the history of the Westward Expansion, in which Native Americans lost far more than land.

Baumgardner presents a highly...

The Round Valley wars of California were an ugly episode in the history of the Westward Expansion, in which Native Americans lost far more than land.

Baumgardner presents a highly researched account of the California frontier wars that gave rise to a stable and permanent ranch economy for whites and a reservation system for the few surviving Native Americans, with a focus on the “Nome Cult Farm” in remote northeastern Mendocino County, California.

Congress seemed to be on a different track in dealing with the California Indians than both the California state legislature and the Indian Affairs Department. The author emphasizes the vital role played by the US Army and how lack of funding and poor coordination of various levels of government resulted in disaster for the Indians.

The book contains primary material in the form of documents, reports, letters, and depositions or testimony of participants, quoted from the California State Archives and other sources, and numerous eyewitness accounts by participants.


Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1. THE YUKIS MEET WHITE MEN 18“Nearly the Whole Number Destroyed”: Patterns of Violence in Northern California 19“Their Own Name for Themselves”: The Original Inhab
CHAPTER 1. THE YUKIS MEET WHITE MEN 18
“Nearly the Whole Number Destroyed”: Patterns of Violence in Northern California 19
“Their Own Name for Themselves”: The Original Inhabitants 21
A “Just and Equitable Title”: After the War with Mexico 25
“The Founders of Human Civilization”: The Settlers 26
“Expensive Wars and Barbarous Devastation”: The Effect of
White Settlement on Native Peoples 28
Conclusion 34
CHAPTER 2. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NOME CULT FARM 38
Kidnapping of Native American Children 49
CHAPTER 3. THE ARMY, THE SETTLERS, AND THE OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN 1857–1858: CONFLICTING VIEWS OF A COMPLICATED SITUATION 50
The Army vs. The Indian Affairs Office 50
The Settlers 54
Reservation Officials and the Office of Indian Affairs 59
The Conflict Converges 68
CHAPTER 4. GEN. KIBBE’S “EXPEDITION” OR, THE WAR WITH THE WIN-TOONS 1858–1859 70
The “War with the Win-toons” 70
CHAPTER 5. VENGEANCE AND TAKING THE LAND—EDEN AND ROUND VALLEYS, 1859–1860 88
CHAPTER 6. THE WOES OF THE SETTLERS AND RANCHERS 104
CHAPTER 7. THE EMPLOYEES’ DEPOSITIONS 135
James Tobin 135
Simmon P. Storms 139
George Rees 143
Other Reservation Employees 146
CHAPTER 8. DEPOSITIONS OF THE SOLDIERS 159
CHAPTER 9. JOURNALISM OF THE PERIOD AND ROUND VALLEY IN THE 1860S 167
Regional News Reports 167
Reservation Building, Round Valley Style 171
CHAPTER 10. THE REJECTED MAJORITY REPORT, 1860 177
CHAPTER 11. “ARRANT FABRICATIONS”: THE 1860 CONGRESSIONAL DEBATE AND KIDNAPPING NATIVE-AMERICAN CHILDREN 189
Superintendent Hanson and the Kidnapping Rings 194
CHAPTER 12. NATIVE AMERICANS RETALIATE 198
Horse Canyon, a Yuki Revolt, Little Stony Creek and the Army’s Return, September 1861–April 1863 198
A Mendocino Herald Investigation 200
The Horse Canyon Massacre 204
The Little Stony Creek Massacre 207
The Concows Leave the Valley 209
Another Attempted Yuki Uprising 212
CHAPTER 13. TENSION MOUNTS BETWEEN NATIVE AMERICANS AND SETTLERS 219
CHAPTER 14. COMPANY F OCCUPIES ROUND VALLEY AND DECLARES MARTIAL LAW, AUGUST 1862–SPRING 1863 227
CHAPTER 15. FURTHER INJUSTICE, 1863-1864 248
The Legacy of the Mendocino War 257
CHAPTER 16. CONCLUSION: “JUSTIFIABLE CONQUEST”? 262
Office of Indian Affairs Expenditures 267
Postscripts of Round Valley’s Main Characters 270
APPENDICES 275
1. Deposition of S.P. Storms, Overseer at Nome Cult 276
2. Indian Population in the Western States and Territories, 1860 277
3. Round Valley Native Americans 277
BIBLIOGRAPHY 279
Books and Articles 279
Newspapers 284
Websites and articles 285
Federal or state official reports and records 285
Census Reports 287
Unpublished theses, dissertations or other scholarly articles 287
Special collections 288
Personal interviews 288
INDEX 289
More . . .
Main Characters
1. Frank and Pierce Asbill: Two Euro-American brothers who discovered Round Valley, May, 1854.
2. Thomas J. Henley: California’s second Superintendent of Indian Affairs, 1854–59.
3. Simon Peña Storms: Founder and the first Agent in Charge, Nome Cult Farm (Round Valley Indian Reservation), 1856–59.
4. Lt. Edward Dillon: 6th Infantry, U.S. Army, platoon commander stationed at Nome Cult Farm, 1858–59.
5. Judge Serranus C. Hastings: Rancher, developer...
Main Characters
1. Frank and Pierce Asbill: Two Euro-American brothers who discovered Round Valley, May, 1854.
2. Thomas J. Henley: California’s second Superintendent of Indian Affairs, 1854–59.
3. Simon Peña Storms: Founder and the first Agent in Charge, Nome Cult Farm (Round Valley Indian Reservation), 1856–59.
4. Lt. Edward Dillon: 6th Infantry, U.S. Army, platoon commander stationed at Nome Cult Farm, 1858–59.
5. Judge Serranus C. Hastings: Rancher, developer and anti-Native American agitator in Eden and Round Valleys, 1859–63. Founder and primary benefactor, Hastings Law School, San Francisco, CA, first Chief Justice, California Supreme Court.
6. Captain Walter Jarboe: Commanding Officer, Eel River Rangers, summer and fall, 1859. Commander in chief of the militia forces in Mendocino County during the Mendocino War, 1859.
7. Gov. John B. Weller: Fifth Governor of California, 1858–60.
8. Gov. John G. Downey: Seventh Governor of California, 1860–62.
9. Senator David C. Broderick: Democrat, U.S. Senator from California, 1857–1859.
10. Senator (Dr.) William (“Duke”) Gwin, U.S. Senator from California, 1850–1858.
11. Senator Henry Wilson: Republican, Massachusetts. He led the opposition in the U.S. Senate to a bill which would have given the California Legislature independent control of all of its Indian reservations in 1859–1860.
12. Major General John E. Wool: The U.S. Army’s commander in chief in California, 6th Infantry, Benicia, California, 1857–58.
13. Gen. William Kibbe: California Militia’s commander in chief of the War with the Win-toons of the Klamath and Mad River Expedition, and Hoopa Valley Campaign.
14. Tom-ya-nem: Chief of the Concow Tribe, 1861–62.
15. State Senator Jasper O’Farrell: Senator from Sonoma and Marin Counties, Member of the Select Legislative Committee to Investigate the Mendocino War, spring 1860.
16. State Assemblyman Joseph B. Lamar: Assemblyman from Mendocino County. Chairman of the Select Committee to Investigate the Mendocino War, spring, 1860. Authored the Minority Report.
17. Lt. A. (Augustus) G. Tassin: Army scout and writer for the Overland Monthly, a monthly national magazine featuring geographical and general feature articles on the West in the late nineteenth century.
18. Capt. Charles D. Douglas: Commander of Company F, 2nd Infantry, U.S. Army in Round Valley from December 12, 1862 through the spring of 1863. Capt. Douglas established Fort Wright. He also conducted a General Investigation of Indian Affairs following the Wailaki Massacre at Upper Station a part of Round Valley Reservation.
Reviews
THE AMERICAS Journal | More »
Local history as a story of greed, corruption and misunderstanding | More »
The American Indian Quarterly - Volume 32, Number 4, Fall 2008 (University of Nebraska Press) | More »

Pages 312
Year: 2005
LC Classification: E78.C15B35
Dewey code: 323.1197'0794'09034--dc22
BISAC: HIS028000
BISAC: HIS036140
BISAC: SOC021000
Soft Cover
ISBN: 978-0-87586-364-1
Price: USD 22.95
Hard Cover
ISBN: 978-0-87586-365-8
Price: USD 29.95
eBook
ISBN: 978-0-87586-366-5
Price: USD 22.95
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