For a Kinder, Gentler Society
Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide
African Heritage, Mesopotamian Roots, Indian Culture & British Colonialism
  • Abdul Jamil Khan
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Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide . African Heritage, Mesopotamian Roots, Indian Culture & British Colonialism
Sound Bite
“Divide and rule” — the British were experts; and in creating out of one language the notion of a separate "Hindi" for Hindus in colonial India and "Urdu" for Muslims, they used even the definition of languages to set their colonial subjects against one another. Further, this language had its origin from Austric and Dravidian and not from the Indo-European Sanskrit, as is the dogma.

About the Author

Abdul Jamil Khan, M.D., of New York, served as chairman of a teaching hospital and a professor of pediatrics specialized in infant speech development; he has now extended himself into linguistics studies, challenged by the pseudo science of race- and religion- driven linguistics, which he implicates in the anti-Semitic holocaust; its Indian parallel, the partition massacre; and other human right violations, a gross anathema to a physician-humanist.

His drive, though, stems from early education, learning six languages by 10th grade, facing political claims of a “divine Arabic” and “divine Sanskrit” and experiencing the tragedies of British division of India and its language.

Dr. Khan, an author of some hundred medical publications, has lately spoken on humanities, linguistics and cultural themes at universities and elsewhere, including Brooklyn Historical society. He also authored a book on his Afghan ancestors' migration to India. Dr. Khan is a co-editor of a periodical “Health Message” and has received media attention in the US and in India. He was featured by Brad Gooch in God Talk (Random House 2002), and Linda Cateura in Voices of American Muslims (Hippocrene Books 2005).

In re-synthesizing the genetic history of Urdu-Hindi and exposing the myth of the Sanskrit language and its script, he builds on ideas promoted by Italian linguist Cavalli Sforza and the newest classification of languages by Merrit Ruhlen.

About the Book

In a blow against the British Empire, Khan suggests that London artificially divided India’s Hindu and Muslim populations by splitting their one language in two, then burying the evidence in obscure scholarly works outside...

In a blow against the British Empire, Khan suggests that London artificially divided India’s Hindu and Muslim populations by splitting their one language in two, then burying the evidence in obscure scholarly works outside the public view. All language is political — and so is the boundary between one language and another. The author analyzes the origins of Urdu, one of the earliest known languages, and propounds the iconoclastic views that,

  • Hindi came from pre-Aryan Dravidian and Austric-Munda, not from Aryan’s Sanskrit (which, like the Indo-European languages, Greek and Latin, etc., are rooted in the Middle East/Mesopotamia and not in Europe);
  • Hindi’s script came from the Aramaic system, similar to Greek, and
  • In the 1800s, the British initiated the divisive game of splitting one language in two, Hindi (for the Hindus) and Urdu (for the Muslims). These facts, he says, have been buried and nearly lost in turgid academic works.

Khan bolsters his hypothesis with copious technical linguistic examples. This may spark a revolution in linguistic history!
Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide integrates the “out of Africa” linguistic evolution theory with the fossil linguistics of Middle East, and discards the theory that Sanskrit descended from a hypothetical proto-IndoEuropean language and by degeneration created dialects, Urdu/Hindi and others.

It shows that several tribes from the Middle East created the hybrid by cumulative evolution. The oldest groups, Austric and Dravidian, starting 8000 B.C. provided the grammar/syntax plus about 60% of vocabulary, SKT added 10% after 1500 B.C. and Arabic/Persian 20-30% after A.D. 800. The book reveals Mesopotamia as the linguistic melting pot of Sumerian, Babylonian, Elamite, Hittite-Hurrian-Mitanni, etc., with a common script and vocabularies shared mutually and passed on to IE, SKT, DR, Arabic and then to Hindi/Urdu; in fact the author locates oldest evidence of SKT in Syria.

The book also exposes the myths of a “revealed” SKT or Hebrew and the fiction of linguistic races, i.e. Aryan, Semitic, etc. The book supports the “one world concept” and reveals the potential of Urdu/Hindi to unite all genetic elements, races and regions of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.

This is important reading not only for those interested to understand the divisive exploitation of languages in British-led India’s partition, but for those interested in

- The science and history of origin of Urdu/Hindi (and other languages)
- The false claims of “linguistic races and creation”
- History of Languages and Scripts
- Language, Mythology and Racism
- Ancient History and Fossil Languages
- British Rule and India’s Partition


More Information

Foreword

The story of Urdu/Hindi, the lingua franca of the Indo-Pakistani people, is the story of one language with two separate scripts and with two names: Hindi, when written in Nagari, and Urdu, when written in Arabic. This book is thorough, complete, and free from religious dogmas, and the theories it elaborates are based solely on evidence...

Foreword

The story of Urdu/Hindi, the lingua franca of the Indo-Pakistani people, is the story of one language with two separate scripts and with two names: Hindi, when written in Nagari, and Urdu, when written in Arabic. This book is thorough, complete, and free from religious dogmas, and the theories it elaborates are based solely on evidence derived from studies of evolution, integrated with studies of man’s oldest language, Sumerian. It exposes the Europeans’ policy (led by British India) in pioneering the concept of mythical races linked to linguistic families, i.e., Semitic, and Aryan/IE, which led to anti-Semitism, religious nationalism, and India’s religion-based partition and politics. The story of the division of language mirrors the latter policy, which is unraveled in the book. Adopting the most recent evidence of the evolution of human language, starting from an early base in Africa, the book records its dispersal outward from the Middle East, or Mesopotamia, by farmers, and traces the creation of new names, such as IE, Semitic, and Dravidian.

The book presents a cumulative/synthetic plan describing Urdu’s evolution over some 10,000–12,000 years with major contributions from India’s two oldest language families, Austric-Munda and Dravidian, followed much later by others such as Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian; this apparently unsettles the currently held view of Urdu/Hindi as a daughter dialect of Sanskrit, a 19th-century idea rooted in Hindu religious myth, the German myth of an Aryan race and its supposed hypothetical language proto-Indo European (PIE) — a scholarly invention — the presumed mother of IE, SKT, and grandmother of Latin and other languages which have been said to derive from them. A major and also unique segment on Mesopotamian languages reveals the origin of Dravidian, Semitic, Arabic, and Indo-European (IE), including Sanskrit, in the Middle East as hybrids of the simplest Sumerian, Elamite, etc., refuting all racial/religious claims of PIE, HEB, and SKT. The evolution of English is cited in parallel in the book, and is shown to originate not from a dissolution of PIE/Gothic but to be a cumulative from Pictic, Celtic, Latin, Old French, and Anglo-Saxon German.

A new classification based on grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and geography, and free from religion/racial myth, is presented as the other thesis in the book. As a work of history the book carries a message, especially for the Indo-Pakistani people, as it uncovers the very first vector, “mythical/racial” linguistics, as a proximate cause for the partition, and also for escalating Hindu vs. Muslim, and Aryan vs. Dravidian polemics. Urdu’s history is also enmeshed with man’s oldest (written) religious ideas/terms, which were written down in Mesopotamia, e.g., names of gods, i.e., Indira, Mitra, Siva, Allah, rab, etc., which are shared by Muslim, Hindus, Jews, and Christians, and is enmeshed as well with Mesopotamia’s rich vocabulary and grammar — shared among Arabic, Sanskrit, Dravidian, and Persian; these topics remain isolated in the obscurity of advanced scholarship.

The book may be seen as a peace mission with a global perspective, free from mythical dogma. The history of languages, culture, and religion from about 300 BC onwards has divided man into Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and other groups; the history between 300 BC and 3000 BC can reunite him to a common heritage of culture, religious ideas, sciences, and a common linguistic melting pot with a single shared script in Mesopotamia, centered at Iraq, and inclusive of its eastern end (western India) and western (Egypt/Greece) range of influence. Besides this shared heritage, the Indo-Pakistani people will find another scientific perspective in the book, their advent from common genetic parents, termed “Adam # 5 and Eve G,” mutant/migrants from Africa.

A synthetic and evolution-based work, the book involves many disciplines. The author, a physician, already had learned six languages: Urdu, Hindi, English, Persian, Arabic, and some SKT. Acquiring the requisite knowledge in the other fields implies a rather intensive labor of love, and love of a challenge. Postponing further self-analysis for now, I must highlight some core research findings scattered in the seventeen chapters. The book follows a historic timeline from chapters III to X, including Mesopotamia (chapter III) and India (chapters IV to X), and focuses on the evolution of hybrid Urdu along with a brief cultural review. The first two chapters offer an overview, language classification, and a basic course on phonetic/alphabets and grammar types, i.e., isolating, agglutinating, inflected, and syntax, which are essential in enabling the reader to understand the dialectal differences inside and outside India — knowledge as basic to linguistic analysis as anatomy is to the study of medicine...


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Pages 420
Year: 2006
LC Classification: PK1971.K435
Dewey code: 491.4'3--dc22
BISAC: FOR038000
BISAC: HIS017000
Soft Cover
ISBN: 978-0-87586-437-2
Price: USD 34.95
Hard Cover
ISBN: 978-0-87586-438-9
Price: USD 39.95
eBook
ISBN: 978-0-87586-439-6
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