Category Archives: Fabricated Narratives About the Environmental Doomsday

Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Jurassic — Five Times Today’s Levels.

by Kirkland Kurevlev via Sputnik

Before they became the planet’s dominant terrestrial vertebrates in the Jurassic period, non-avian dinosaurs were in the shadow of their reptilian relatives – archosaurs – which really reigned on a single supercontinent of Pangea and after its split until 201.3 million years ago, when the mass extinction event ended the period.

A new study published in the journal Science Advances challenges the notion that dinosaurs preferred the heat in the early stages of their evolution.

It offers the first real proof that Triassic dinosaur species, at the time a small group confined mostly to the polar areas, often experienced freezing temperatures there. According to the research, dinosaur footprints and peculiar rock shards that could only have been left behind by ice are the unmistakable signs of said find.

The international team authors argued cold snaps that were already occurring at the poles moved to lower latitudes during the mass extinction, eradicating the coldblooded reptiles. Because they were already adapted, dinosaurs escaped the evolutionary bottleneck and expanded to rule the earth for the next 130 million years.

“Dinosaurs were there during the Triassic under the radar all the time,” Paul Olsen, a geologist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, and lead author of the study, is quoted in the Phys.org report as saying. “The key to their eventual dominance was very simple. They were fundamentally cold-adapted animals. When it got cold everywhere, they were ready, and other animals weren’t.”

The research was based on recent excavations in northwest China’s Junggar Basin, a desolate desert.

Dinosaurs are believed to have initially evolved during the Triassic Period, some 231 million years ago, in temperate southern latitudes, when the majority of the planet’s surface was united together in a single enormous continent Pangea.

Pangaea at 202 Ma (Mollweide projection) showing location of Junggar Basin (fig. S1) and Triassic dinosaurs. - Sputnik International, 1920, 03.07.2022Pangaea at 202 Ma (Mollweide projection) showing location of Junggar Basin (fig. S1) and Triassic dinosaurs.
© Photo : Science Advances / Olsen et al.

By around 214 million years ago, they had reached the far north, according to the scientists. The more extensive tropical and subtropical regions between were dominated by reptiles, including crocodile relatives and other terrifying animals, until the great extinction about 202 million years ago.

Temperatures during the Triassic period had likely been high due to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as the majority of the Jurassic ranged at or over 2,000 parts per million, which is five times today’s levels.

Polar ice caps were not present during that era, and excavations have revealed that polar regions once supported deciduous trees. Even with all that much CO2, the high latitudes might have been chilly at times since they would have had little sunlight for a large portion of the year and temperatures would have dropped at least periodically.

But until recently, no one has shown any tangible evidence that they froze, and that is where the new research brings some change to the theory.

Death of Pangean World & New Beginning for Dinosaurs

Over three-quarters of all terrestrial and marine species on the planet, including all large reptiles and corals, went extinct at the end of the Triassic Period during a geologically brief period of perhaps a million years. Some burrowing species, such as turtles, as well as a few early mammals, survived. Although it is unknown exactly what occurred, many experts believe it was caused by a succession of enormous volcanic eruptions that may have lasted for hundreds of years at a time.

Cladogram of physiologically important characters on phylogenetic framework. - Sputnik International, 1920, 03.07.2022Cladogram of physiologically important characters on phylogenetic framework.
© Photo : Science Advances / Olsen et al.

Around this period, Pangea began to fragment, creating what has become the Atlantic Ocean and dividing the modern-day Americas from Europe, Africa and Asia. The eruptions would have, among other things, caused atmospheric carbon dioxide to soar above its already high levels, spiking temperatures on land and making ocean waters too acidic for many organisms to thrive.

A third element is mentioned by the study’s authors. The strongest phases of the eruptions would have released sulfur aerosols that reflected so much sunlight that they repeatedly generated worldwide volcanic winters that outweighed high greenhouse gas concentrations. Even the tropics might have experienced prolonged freezing conditions during these winters, which could have lasted a decade or longer.

According to the research, this killed uninsulated reptiles while allowing cold-adapted, insulated dinosaurs to survive.

Fine-grained sandstone and siltstone deposits from ancient lake bottoms in the Junggar Basin became the researchers’ primary source of evidence. The late Triassic Period, the mass extinction, and other events all caused the sediments to form some 206 million years ago.

The basin was located at roughly 71 degrees north, high above the Arctic Circle, at that time, before landmasses began to reorganize themselves, as they do throughout the entire history of our planet. Dinosaurs were present along shorelines, as evidenced by the authors’ and others’ discovery of dinosaur footprints. The researchers discovered pebbles up to 1.5 centimeters in diameter among the typically fine sediments in the lakes itself.

As the pebbles had no business being there since they were far from any visible beach, it was determined they were ice-rafted debris, or IRD for short, and that was the only possible explanation for their existence, the authors argued.

In a nutshell, IRD is produced when ice forms against a coastal landmass and absorbs pieces of subsurface rock. The ice eventually breaks free and flows into the nearby water body. The rocks fall to the bottom and mix with the typical fine sediments as it melts.

In the oceans, where it is carried by glacial icebergs, ancient IRD has been extensively investigated by geologists, but lakebed research has been sparse, and the Junggar Basin discovery reportedly fills this gap. According to the scientists, the pebbles were probably gathered during the winter when lake waters along pebbly shorelines froze. When the weather warmed up again, pieces of the ice drifted away while carrying samples of the pebbles, where they later dumped them.

“This shows that these areas froze regularly, and the dinosaurs did just fine,” the research’s co-author Dennis Kent said, per Phys.org.

And it seems that how the dinosaurs succeeded in such harsh conditions no longer causes any doubts among the vast majority of paleontologists.

Since the 1990s, there has been mounting proof that many, if not all, non-avian dinosaurs, including tyrannosaurs, had primitive feathers. Some coverings may have served as mating displays if not for flying, but the researchers claim that insulation was their primary function. There is strong evidence that many dinosaurs had warm-blooded, high-metabolism systems, in contrast to the cold-blooded reptiles. In cold climates, dinosaurs would have benefited from both characteristics.

A life reconstruction of Ubiraja jubatus depicted by an artist - Sputnik International, 1920, 16.12.2020Scientists Discover Dinosaur With Proto-Hair Mane And Ribbon-Like Structures on Sides
16 December 2020, 04:46 GMT

“Severe wintery episodes during volcanic eruptions may have brought freezing temperatures to the tropics, which is where many of the extinctions of big, naked, unfeathered vertebrates seem to have occurred,” Kent explained. “Whereas our fine feathered friends acclimated to colder temperatures in higher latitudes did OK.”

According to the researchers comments on their study, they would like to see more researchers hunting for fossils in once polar regions like the Junggar Basin, in order to better comprehend this time period.

“The fossil record is very bad, and no one is prospecting,” Olsen said. “These rocks are gray and black, and it is much harder to prospect [for fossils] in these strata. Most paleontologists are attracted to the late Jurassic, where it’s known there are many big skeletons to be had. The paleo-Arctic is basically ignored.”

Joe Biden’s Electric Car Plans – Why They Are Impossible

Authored by Tom Harris via RealClear Energy (emphasis ours),

In his State of the Union Address, President Joe Biden promoted electric vehicles (EVs), trumpeting his plans to establish “a national network of 500,000 electric vehicle charging stations.” In so doing, Biden is unwittingly supporting the worst humanitarian abuses in the world. This is because of the way in which the materials used in manufacturing the batteries that power today’s EVs are obtained.

To obtain a reasonable amount of power per pound of battery weight, EV manufacturers generally use various forms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, so named because the battery’s positive electrode, called the cathode, is largely made up of the highly reactive metal lithium (Li). To keep the cathode stable when a battery is not in use, the lithium is combined in a metal oxide matrix, with different manufacturers using different combinations of metals.

Most EV manufacturers combine lithium with nickel, cobalt and manganese to create a Li-Ni-Mn-Co oxide matrix to form the cathode. Tesla substitutes aluminum (Al) for the manganese, yielding a Li-Ni-Co-Al oxide matrix for the cathode on their batteries. Tesla maintains that their formulae is more cost-effective as less cobalt is required.

In all cases, the negative electrode, called the anode, in an EV battery is composed mostly of graphite.

To support the huge EV expansion being promoted by Biden, we will need immense quantities of the materials needed to manufacture EV batteries, for example, lithium, cobalt, graphite, nickel, manganese and aluminum. Let’s consider the sources of just three of these substances—lithium, cobalt and graphite—to see where the human rights issues arise.

In a normal 1,000-pound Li-ion EV battery, there is about 25 pounds of lithium. Since lithium brines typically contain less than 0.1% lithium, about 25,000 pounds of brines are needed to get the 25 pounds of pure lithium. This is mainly extracted from Tibet and the highlands of Argentina-Bolivia-Chile (according to the U.S. Geological Survey, 58% of the world’s lithium reserves are found in Chile) known as the “lithium triangle.” Lithium production in Tibet results in dead, toxic fish, and carcasses of cows and yaks floating down the Liqi River. The Ganzizhou Rongda Li mine in Tibet has thoroughly poisoned this river.

Similarly, native peoples in the lithium triangle face contaminated streams needed for human consumption, livestock watering, irrigation systems with mountains left desolate over discarded salt from the lithium brining process. A report titled, “COMMODITIES AT A GLANCE Special issue on strategic battery raw materials” issued in 2020 by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development explained:

“Indigenous communities that have lived in the Andean region of Chile, Bolivia and Argentina for centuries must contend with miners for access to communal land and water. The mining industry depends on a large amount of groundwater in one of the driest desert regions in the world to pump out brines from drilled wells. Some estimates show that approximately 1.9 million litres of water is needed to produce a tonne of lithium. In Chile’s Salar de Atacama, lithium and other mining activities consumed 65 per cent of the region’s water. That is having a big impact on local farmers – who grow quinoa and herd llamas – in an area where some communities already must get water driven in from elsewhere.”

A 1,000-pound Li-ion EV battery typically also contains about 30 pounds of cobalt. Cobalt ore grades average about 0.1%, so we need to process almost 30,000 pounds of ore to get 30 pounds of cobalt. With 50% of the world’s cobalt reserves, the Democratic Republic of Congo contributes almost two-thirds of global cobalt production. This is causing immense humanitarian abuses. Congo has at least 40,000 children—some as young as 4-years old—working with their parents for less than $2 a day. They are exposed to multiple psychological violations and abuse as well as significant physical risks. Engineer and energy consultant Ronald Stein and Todd Royal, an independent public policy consultant focusing on the geopolitical implications of energy, go into more details in their book Clean Energy Exploitations – Helping citizens understand the environmental and humanity abuses that support ‘clean’ energy”:

“Cave-in’s, constant exposure to toxic, radioactive water, dust, and dangerous air loaded with cobalt, lead, and uranium with other heavy metals breathed into lungs day-after-day so western citizens can feel good about their Tesla or wind turbine. Cobalt ore is sent to China since one of the larger mines in the Congo is Chinese-owned Congo Dongfang International Mining Company.”

A 1,000-pound EV battery also has 110 pounds of graphite. At 10% concentration, 1,100 pounds of ore must be processed for each battery. China is now producing about 70% of the global supply of natural graphite. Villagers living near graphite companies in provinces in Northeast China complain of “sparkling night air,” crop damage, homes and belongings covered in soot and polluted drinking water.

In his State of the Union address9, Biden spoke of promoting “environmental justice” and “expanding fairness.” The president said, “I will be honest with you, as I’ve always promised.”

Biden must now be honest about electric vehicles. They grossly violate basic environmental justice principles and are anything but fair to the poor of the world who suffer and die so that wealthy western elites can virtue signal with their electric vehicles.

Tom Harris is Executive Director of the Ottawa, Canada-based International Climate Science Coalition.

Nature Creates Plastic-Eating Microbes Clearing Pollution Away

via RT

Global plastic pollution is forcing our planet to adapt, growing microorganisms that can degrade the accumulating waste, a new study claims. Living organisms with the potential to diminish 10 types of plastic have been discovered.

Bugs producing plastic-degrading enzymes both on land and in oceans are growing in quantity and diversity, the study from the Swedish Chalmers University of Technology shows. Researchers have discovered over 30,000 enzyme homologues – members of protein sequences sharing similar properties – that live all around the planet and have the potential to degrade the 10 types of plastic most widely used by humans.

Around 12,000 such organisms were found in the ocean, and 18,000 in the soil, researchers revealed, adding that their habitats correlate with local levels of plastic pollution. The highest amounts of plastic-degrading bugs were discovered in “notoriously highly polluted areas,” including the South Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

“We did not expect to find such a large number of them across so many different microbes and environmental habitats. This is a surprising discovery that really illustrates the scale of the issue,” the study’s first author, Jan Zrimec, said.

While it was previously known that some enzymes can digest plastic, scientists now believe the environment is evolving to grow more of these organisms to deal with some 380 million tons of plastic produced annually. The latest findings represent “a significant demonstration of how the environment is responding to the pressures we are placing on it,” according to a researcher from the Chalmers University of Technology, associate professor Aleksej Zelezniak.

Scientists hope that further analysis of the environmental DNA samples with plastic-degrading potential may help people manage the pollution crisis. These microorganisms hold “great potential to revolutionize the management of global plastic waste,” the study claims. Its authors now want to test “the most promising enzyme candidates” in the lab, and identify those that can be used in novel recycling processes to speed up very slow plastic degradation. “From there you could engineer microbial communities with targeted degrading functions for specific polymer types,” Zelezniak explained.

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Twice the Size of Texas Is Fake

by Dr. Patrick Moore via CFACT.org

A huge, swirling pile of trash in the Pacific Ocean is growing faster than expected and is now three times the size of France. According to a three-year study published in Scientific Reports Friday, the mass known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is about 1.6 million square kilometers in size – up to 16 times bigger than previous estimates. That makes it more than double the size of Texas.” CNN – March 23, 2018.

Of all the fabricated narratives about the environment, this one takes the cake. Yes, there is plastic in the oceans, mostly discarded fishing gear, but there is no island of plastic waste twice the size of Texas in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Because the average person cannot see the middle of the Pacific for themselves sensationalist activists, media, and politicians just make this up. In fact, plastic in the oceans is doing far more good than harm. Allow me to explain this bold assertion.

Plastic is made from several raw materials including oil, coal, natural gas, and wood. Plastics are polymers — long-chain compounds often composed of identical molecules. Think of a string of pearls. Nearly all plastics originate from living matter formed with solar energy by photosynthesis in plants on land and sea. For example, rayon and cellophane are made from cellulose which is a polymer of glucose derived from wood and are therefore plastics. Cotton is pure cellulose and is therefore also a plastic. Natural rubber and synthetic rubber are polymers and therefore plastics. Oil, coal, and natural gas are all products of solar energy that produced forests and sea life that turned into fossil fuels over the millennia. Today they are made into polymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride, otherwise known as PVC or vinyl.

To begin, despite the vast amount of propaganda, plastics are not toxic, they are inert. This is one of the reasons we package and wrap much of our food in plastic. It helps prevent spoilage from bacteria and mold, and protects the food from contamination by actual toxic substances. If plastic were toxic, we would not wrap our food in it. Plastic does not miraculously become toxic in the ocean.

There is a big difference between pollution and litter. Pollution is either a toxic substance or one that is harmful to life in other ways. Plastic litter may appear unsightly, but like driftwood on a beach it is not toxic and does not harm life. Like driftwood in the ocean, plastic promotes life, as many marine species attach themselves to it, lay their eggs on it, or eat other species that are living on it. Floating pieces of plastic are like small floating reefs that enhance rather that harm marine life. Many plastic objects are in the form of containers, so unlike most driftwood can be used as shelter from predators and habitat for breeding.

Perhaps the most unique benefit of floating bits of plastic in the sea is their use by seabirds as an alternative for the traditional items used as digestive aids in their gizzards. Birds have no teeth, so they swallow their food whole. All birds have two stomachs, one like ours and another that is a muscular organ, the gizzard, used to grind large hard pieces of food so they can be digested. To aid in this process, birds on the land use pebbles fed to them by their parents from birth and then they gather pebbles for themselves all their lives. There are no pebbles in the ocean, so seabirds use floating bits of pumice from undersea volcanoes, bits of hard wood, floating nuts from trees, and since plastic was introduced to the oceans about 60 years ago, suitable bits of floating plastic. Many studies by bird specialists have found that this has no negative effects on chicks or adults. Yet Sir David Attenborough, The Smithsonian, and Greenpeace falsely allege that the parent birds are “feeding” plastic to their chicks “mistaking it for food” and that this is killing their chicks. They know what a bird gizzard is, but they never use that word. They know they are lying for the sake of notoriety and donations.

It would be beneficial to sea life if the environmental community and the international fishing industry would work to develop a program to prevent damaged fishnets from being thrown in the ocean. Discarded fishnets can catch fish and other sea life and are nicknamed “ghost nets.” It should be possible to incentivize fishers to bring their damaged nets to the dock where they can be recycled or disposed of in a manner that does no harm.