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How Do Mosquitoes Sniff Out Humans to Bite?

aedes aegypti mosquito

A magnified photo of an Aedes aegypti mosquito (Image credit: Joao Paulo Burini via Getty Images)

It’s the dead of night and you’re tucked away in bed, bundled up to your chin in a pitch dark room — and suddenly you hear the telltale buzzing of a mosquito zoom past your ear. 
Some mosquito species specialize in biting humans, and these tiny blood-suckers excel at tracking us down. The question is, how do mosquitoes hone in on their victims with such precision?
The answer: Mosquitoes can use their sense of smell to pinpoint their next human victim, even if that person’s odor is intermingled with that of nearby animals and the surrounding environment. Humans exude a unique bouquet of odors that’s distinct from the smells exuded by other creatures, and for mosquitoes, this scent acts like a huge homing beacon, drawing them toward their next blood meal.
“There are over 3,000 different species of mosquitoes in total, but only a few mosquitoes specialize in biting humans,” said Zhilei Zhao, a postdoctoral researcher of neurobiology and behavior at Cornell University. Zhao and his colleagues studied one such mosquito species, called Aedes aegypti, which shows an overwhelming preference for biting humans over feeding on other animals.
Aedes aegypti loves humans. They love our odor,” said Matthew DeGennaro, a neurogeneticist and associate professor at Florida International University, who was not involved in the study. Unfortunately, the pests carry a wide array of pathogens and can spread diseases like Zika, dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever to the humans they nip.U
Related: Why do mosquitoes buzz in our ears?

“We have known for a long time that A. aegypti mosquitoes are particularly attracted to … humans compared to other animals. This is part of the reason that they’re such a public health menace,” said Laura B. Duvall, an assistant professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at Columbia University, who was not involved in the study. 
Past studies have suggested that A. aegypti mosquitoes can smell the carbondioxide we exhale and use this chemical cue to find human flesh to bite, according to a 2022 report in the journal Nature Communications. DeGennaro and his colleagues recently discovered that the pests can also smell specific components of human sweat, including lactic acid, he told Live Science in an email. And another study found that the mosquitoes flock towards Brevibacterium linens, a bacterium found on human feet that also gives Limburger cheese its distinctive smell, Live Science previously reported.
But although scientists know that all these chemical cues help A. aegyptimosquitoes target humans, “most of these [cues] are found in both humans and animals,” Duvall told Live Science in an email. Somehow, the mosquitoes still manage to pluck humans out of the line up of potential prey, despite animals emitting similar scent compounds. “We didn’t know how they were able to tell the difference,” Duvall said. 
Zhao’s 2022 study, published May 4 in the journal Nature, uncovered a possible solution to this mystery by zooming in on the mosquitoes’ miniscule brains.
To do this, the researchers first used a gene-editing technique called CRISPR-Cas9 to splice genes for a fluorescent protein into mosquitoes’ DNA; they specifically used female A. aegypti mosquitoes, since the males of the species drink nectar instead of biting humans. Once inserted, the gene directed the mosquitoes’ cells to stick the fluorescent protein into specific nerve cells, or neurons, in the bugs; when these neurons switched on, the protein glowed in response.
“So when neurons are active, the fluorescence increases,” said Zhao, who was a doctoral student at Princeton University at the time the research was conducted. In this way, the team imbued smell-processing centers in the mosquitoes’ brains with these light-up proteins, and they also stuck the proteins into the blood suckers’ scent-detecting organs, such as their antennae and maxillary palps, which are tiny sensory organs that jut out from the bugs’ mouthparts.

An Aedes aegypti mosquito slurps up a blood meal. (Image credit: Joao Paulo Burini via Getty Images)

The team then exposed the mosquitoes to a sampling of scents that they’d collected from different animals, including rats, guinea pigs, quails, sheep, dogs, and of course, humans; each of these sampled scents contained a blend of different compounds let off by the animals. To see which areas of the mosquito brain lit up in response to the different fragrances, the team sliced into the bugs’ puny heads.
Related: Should we kill every mosquito on Earth?
“The brain is super small,” only about 0.01 inches (0.5 millimeters) across, Zhao said. Working under microscopes, the team would peel away the outer cuticle covering the mosquitoes’ heads, carefully exposing the bugs’ fluoresce-riddled brains. The mosquitoes remained alive throughout the delicate procedure. “Your hands need to be steady, otherwise you kind of just destroy the brain,” he said.
One bulbous bundle of nerves, known as a glomerulus, showed a strong reaction to human scents but a weak reaction to animal smells, the team found. They called these nerves the human-sensitive (H) glomerulus. A different glomerulus (labeled A) showed the opposite pattern, reacting strongly to animal but not people scents, and a third glomerulus (labeled B) reacted strongly to all the test odors. To better understand these patterns of activation, the team broke down the animal fragrances into their component compounds, to analyze them individually and in different blends.
They pinpointed two compounds — known as decanal and undecanal — that consistently appeared in large quantities in their human scent samples but in low quantities in the animal samples. These compounds smell sweet and citrusy, similar to an orange peel, and are found in human sebum, an oil produced by glands in the skin.
The newly-identified H glomerulus seemed specifically tuned to these compounds, reacting especially strongly to a synthetic blend of the two. Meanwhile, the B glomerulus only reacted modestly to this scent and the A glomerulus didn’t react at all. The A. aegypti mosquitoes showed a profound attraction towards the blend, even flying toward it in a test conducted in a wind tunnel, the researchers found. This hinted that decanal, undecanal and the H glomerulus activity provoked by the compounds are key to how the mosquitoes track down human hosts.  
“It is amazing to me that there is only one glomerulus whose activation pattern is human specific. I would have thought there are more,” DeGennaro said. However, the H glomerulus likely isn’t working in complete isolation — mosquitoes have other chemical-detecting sensory systems, in addition to the neurons the team analyzed, that also help them home in on hosts, Duvall said. The H glomerulus just seems to be a key driver of A. aegypti mosquitoes’ human-hunting behavior.
The authors didn’t test whether blocking activity in the H glomerulus would shift Aedes aegypti mosquito preference away from humans and toward animals, but this could be an interesting avenue for research. In theory, scientists could develop chemical formulas that tune down the activity of the H glomerulus and thus make mosquito repellants more effective, DeGennaro said. Zhao told Live Science that his colleague is working on developing such compounds now.
Another potential application for the research would be to brew mosquito attractants, or chemicals that could be used as bait to “lure mosquitoes away from humans and into a trap,” Duvall noted. Zhao and his colleagues have patented their decanal-undecanal blend and hope to put it toward such a purpose.
Zhao said he suspects that other mosquito species likely show similar patterns of brain activation in response to human smells, provided that they use humans as their primary host. “It would be interesting to look at other species that have developed human preferences, like Anopheles mosquitoes that can transmit malaria, or species with other host preferences like bird-preferring Culexmosquitoes,” which generally bite animals more often than humans, Duvall said. 

Originally published on Live Science.

Nicoletta Lanese
Nicoletta Lanese 

Nicoletta Lanese is a staff writer for Live Science covering health and medicine, along with an assortment of biology, animal, environment and climate stories. She holds degrees in neuroscience and dance from the University of Florida and a graduate certificate in science communication from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Her work has appeared in The Scientist Magazine, Science News, The San Jose Mercury News and Mongabay, among other outlets.

CDC Report Admits 74.2 Million People in the USA Have Not Had a Single Dose of a Covid-19 Vaccine

by THE EXPOSÉ

The American people have seen right through President Biden’s propaganda and lies on the effectiveness of the Covid-19 injections because according to CDC data, 70% of the entire population of the USA have not had either a first, second or third dose of the Covid-19 vaccine.

President Joe Biden has lied to the American people and is still lying to the American people. In July 2021, Biden falsely stated that “You’re not going to get COVID if you have these vaccinations,” and “If you’re vaccinated, you’re not going to be hospitalized, you’re not going to be in the ICU unit, and you’re not going to die.”

Then in December 2021, Biden falsely claimed “This is a pandemic of the unvaccinated. The unvaccinated. Not the vaccinated, the unvaccinated. That’s the problem. Everybody talks about freedom and not to have a shot or have a test. Well guess what? How about patriotism? How about making sure that you’re vaccinated, so you do not spread the disease to anyone else.”

There is plenty of evidence out there that proves the above statements made by President Biden are outright lies (see here), but the most hilarious evidence of all must be the recent outbreak that occurred due to journalists and Government leaders attending the ‘Gridiron Dinner at the beginning of April 2022. An annual event in Washington DC.

All guests at the event were required to show proof of vaccination. A week later at least 72 of the 630 fully vaccinated/boosted guests tested positive for Covid-19.

But it would appear the majority of the American people can already see through President Biden’s lies without us needing to put the record straight. Because according to data published by the US Centers for Disease Control, 74.2 million Americans are still completely unvaccinated, and a further 157 million Americans have refused a second or third dose of the Covid-19 injection.

Meaning 50% of the entire country has potentially become wise to the propaganda and lies spouted by the American Government, Dr Anthony Fauci, and the mainstream media over the past two years.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) provides the following data on Covid-19 vaccinations in the United States –

Data for Dose 1

Date for Dose 2

Data for Dose 3

We’ve created the following chart based on the figures provided by the CDC above, showing the total vaccination uptake vs the total vaccination refusal in the USA per dose –


As we can see from the above according to the CDC, 257 million people have had a single dose, 219.7 million people have had a second dose, and 100.7 million people have had a third dose as of May 2nd 2022.
This means on top of the 74.2 million unvaccinated, a further 38 million people who had the first dose refused the second dose, and a further 119 million people who had the second dose refused the third dose.
This equates to 70% of the entire population of the USA who have not had either a first, second or third dose of a Covid-19 injection.
However, the above chart includes children under the age of 5 who are not eligible for Covid-19 vaccination. So we’ve created the following chart based on the figures provided by the CDC above, showing the total vaccination uptake vs the total vaccination refusal in the USA per dose among those who are eligible for vaccination –


On top of the 54.7 million people eligible for Covid-19 vaccination who have chosen to remain unvaccinated, a further 37.9 million people who had the first dose refused the second dose, and a further 90.2million people who had the second dose refused the third dose.
This brings the possible number of people who have now woken up to the lies and propaganda spouted by the Government and mainstream media over the past two years to 182.8 million; 55% of the entire population of the USA.
Approximately 183 million people in the USA are now refusing to partake in the largest real-world experiment ever conducted, even though their “elected” President told them it was their patriotic duty to get vaccinated because he falsely claimed the vaccinated do not spread Covid-19.
President Biden is probably breathing a sigh of relief that so many people have chosen to ignore his lies. Because a study of official data published by the Government of Canada has found triple vaccinated individuals are now four times more likely to be infected with Covid-19, 2 times more likely to be hospitalised with Covid-19, and 2 times more likely to die of Covid-19 than unvaccinated individuals.
One reason why this could be occurring is that the Covid-19 injections are causing Vaccine-Associated Enhanced Disease and antibody-dependent enhancement. But this would not explain the increased risk of infection.
But there’s another condition that would explain the increased risk of infection as well as the increased risk of hospitalisation and death.
And that condition is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (Read more here)

“War Criminal” Biden in His Own Words

Screengrab of 2002 Joe Biden address to an Albanian American civic group. - Sputnik International, 1920, 24.03.2022
© Photo : YouTube / HaplogroupE3b1a

Editor’s Note: See the US-led NATO attack on the former Yugoslavia. That war lasted for 78 days during which 10,500 strike sorties were carried out. Some 2,000 civilians are estimated to have been killed. Civilian infrastructure destroyed included 25,000 homes, 20 hospitals, 70 schools, 38 bridges, over 1,000 kilometers of road and railway, 14 airports, as well as water, sewage and power plants.

by Ilya Tsukanov via Sputnik

Thursday marks the 23rd anniversary of the start of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Yugoslavia. In 78 days, NATO jets conducted 2,300 sorties, dropping 420,000 missiles and bombs, including cluster munitions and depleted uranium rounds. Up to 5,700 people were killed, with tens of thousands more diagnosed with cancers in the years that followed.

Before entering the Oval Office as Barack Obama’s vice president and then as president himself, Joe Biden served as a United States senator for over 30 years. Ahead of, during and after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999, Biden was consistently one of the top hawks in Washington pushing for the conflict to be expanded into a full-on ground invasion.

“Look, you have probably the only three people in Washington here who think we should go straight to Belgrade and arrest [Yugoslav president Slobodan] Milosevich,” Biden said in a May 1999 appearance on Meet the Press alongside the now late Republican senator John McCain.
“But let’s not kid each other. We’re the only three people. The rest of this is malarkey. The Republican Congress won’t even vote for the bombing. The NATO forces won’t even go along with the idea of ground troops. And whether or not the president will or will not is not relevant. The question to me is: What is the definition of victory?” Biden complained.

“The definition of victory was all the troops out of Kosovo, the Albanians back in Kosovo and a NATO-led force in Kosovo. That’s not total victory. That’s not the victory I want, that’s not the victory John wants. I’ve been saying we should go in on the ground, we should announce there’s gonna be American casualties. We should go to Belgrade and we should have a Japanese/German-style occupation of that country and we should have public trials in order to strike away this mask of Serbian victimization,” Biden said.

In a second video, dated 1998, before the NATO air campaign began, Biden sparred with Republican lawmaker Joe DioGuardi about the Kosovo crisis, boasting that he had called for Belgrade to be bombed and for US pilots to destroy all bridges on the Drina River during the NATO intervention in Bosnia in 1995, which killed over 150 Bosnian Serbs, destroyed critical civilian infrastructure, and irradiated the region with DU munitions.

In a third video, from an April 2002 gala dinner of the Albanian American Civic League in New York City, an apparently inebriated Biden vowed to continue to support having US troops “on the ground with loaded rifles and drawn bayonets” in the Balkans until US objectives were accomplished.

“I will continue with every fiber in my being to keep America involved with troops that can shoot and kill to protect the rights of the Albanians wherever they reside in the Balkans,” Biden assured. US forces would stay until the “job is finished,” the senator stressed, defining that “job” as putting Kosovo, Macedonia and Albania on the road to NATO and EU membership.


“Why some of you ask have I been so relentless on Serbia and [post-Milosevich President Vojislav] Kostunica who I do not trust? Why have I been so reluctant, so persistent in not providing aid to the people of Serbia who are many good people – why? Because until they look in their hearts they can never cure themselves of the disease that they are the oppressed. And as long as they operate on that standard, this cycle will continue and continue and continue. So that’s why, not for vengeance, but for release – that it’s necessary for them to look the devil in the eye,” Biden said.

Hungarian Media and the Covid Lie

The coverage of Szilveszter Csollany’s death shows you being called an “anti-vaxxer” is more about what you think, than what you do.

by Kit Knightly via Off Guardian

The Independent has put out an early (and strong) entry for “Worst Journalism of the Year” award, reporting yesterday the death of Hungarian gymnastics coach Szilveszter Csollany under the headline:

Anti-vax Olympic gold medalist Szilveszter Csollany dies of Covid, aged 51

The glaring issue with this headline becomes clear just three paragraphs into the article [our emphasis]:

While Csollany had, according to [Hungarian newspaper Blikk], expressed anti-vaccination views on social media, the six-time World Championship medallist had been vaccinated to allow him to continue to work as a gymnastics coach.

The journalism is terrible, criminally bad.

The evidence supplied for Csollany’s supposed “anti-vaccination views” is non-existent. Second-hand hearsay, at best. No direct quotations, no sources provided.

OffGuardian would be ashamed to publish something so flimsy. Any outlet should.

But, of course, that isn’t the most egregious part – as you can tell from our emphasised quote – the supposed “anti-vaxxer” had been vaccinated.

To bury that in the body, under that headline, is deliberate deception. They know many people will read the title and assume he hadn’t had the vaccine without ever reading the body of the text, and they are relying on that to spread an intentionally false impression.

The very definition of disinformation.

After deliberately misrepresenting the man’s life, they proceed to do the same to his death. Not even granting him the respect of an honest appraisal of his last weeks alive, they totally ignore all the relevant questions pertaining to the man’s health.

They never question why a previously healthy 51-year-old would ever need to be put on a ventilator, or consider how ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilator-induced trauma may have contributed to his death.

The article readily admits he died “of Covid” despite being vaccinated, but never even attempts to explain that, sparing a throwaway sentence suggesting “he contracted the virus soon after receiving his jab, and thus had not built sufficient levels of antibodies”, which is not supported by any medical opinion or sources.

Having admitted he WAS vaccinated, and only a short time before he died, the article never considers even for a second the obvious logical conclusion: That the vaccine may have played some part in his death, or killed him outright.

It doesn’t even refute the idea, it simply refuses to acknowledge its existence.

But really, the worst aspect of this black-hole of integrity is not the deliberately misleading headline, or the lack of even the most basic journalistic ethics, it is deeper than that. There is an unspoken message concealed within the tone of the writing, and a shifting of linguistic definitions that comes with it.

The implied thought buried in the text is that, even though he was vaccinated, his alleged doubts mean he was still an “anti-vaxxer” and therefore deserved to die. That he brought the Covid curse down upon his head through his expressing “anti-vaccination views”.

As if he called down God’s wrath through speaking heresy.

This is not the first time we have seen the narrative try and separate the meaning of “anti-vaxxer” from a person’s vaccination status.

In Australia the Northern Territories Premier Michael Gunner recently told the media :

If you support or give comfort to anybody who argues against the vaccine, you are an anti-vaxxer, I don’t care what your personal vaccination status is.

Yes, in Australia an anti-vaxxer can be a vaccinated person who “gives comfort” to someone who argues against the vaccine, they don’t have to agree with the anti-vaxxer they simply have to tolerate them.

It’s a dark age belief system, where to even hear heresy spoken is to be tainted by it.

This is all part of the redefining, really the broadening, of what people even mean by “anti-vaxxer” in the first place. Yet more “pivoting of our language”.

Szilveszter Csollany is accused of “expressing anti-vaccination views” on social media, but in our current climate that can mean almost anything.

Opposing vaccine mandates, vaccine passports, or the giving of untested vaccines to children. All have been described as “anti-vax” positions.

You could have every vaccine you’ve ever been offered, but decline the Covid “vaccine” to wait for long-term safety data, and still find yourself branded an “anti-vaxxer”.

And now, finally, you can actually be vaccinated, but be labelled an “anti-vaxxer” because you may have previously expressed doubts or asked questions.

The injection has become the quite literal equivalent of a religious rite, where your beliefs are just as important as your actions, maybe even more so.

The vaccines are “safe and effective”, that’s the mantra for the modern age, chanted in televised chapels.

In the beginning, people were told that if you were anti-vaxxer you would die, for the vaccines are the new blood of Christ, and by accepting them into your heart you are promised life eternal.

This conditioning has gone so deep people are inverting it and spitting it back out: Now, if you die, you must have been an anti-vaxxer.

Being vaccinated, but not believing in the vaccine, is just as bad as rejecting the vaccine, and you will remain unvaccinated in spirit.

And like a modern-day ducking stool, if – like poor Szilveszter Csollany – you get the vaccine and die anyway, it shows only that your faith was not strong enough, you were secretly an anti-vaxxer at heart, and the press will say as much in your obituary.

The media all talk this way.

I can’t tell if they do it dishonestly to create this bizarre atmosphere of religious fervour, or they don’t even realise they’re doing it because they’re so caught up in zealotry. And I’m not sure which is worse.

Either way, the endpoint is clear: A world where being “anti-vaccination” is no longer defined by what you do, but by what you say and think or even what you allow others to think.

An all-purpose label, so vague as to be functionally meaningless, but universally applied to anyone who diverts as much as one degree from the mainstream course, turning them into an outsider who must be shunned.

It really is a cult. There’s no other way to describe it.

Was Novak Djokovic a Victim of Anglo-Australian Rio Tinto’s Lithium Grab Failure?

Aleksandar Vucic insists Western governments funded protests that sunk $2.7 bn lithium mine

Serbian President Aleksandar Vucic has brushed aside denials by Western governments that it was they who had funded the environmental protests that forced Belgrade to scrap an ambitious mining project.

He doubled down on the accusations made by his prime minister, saying that those who had provided the funds for the demonstrations through various NGOs had sought to damage his administration.

“Those foreign foundations are helping to topple the government in Serbia,” he said in an interview with local media. “These protests have nothing to do with the environment.”

Vucic was referring to the plans of the Anglo-Australian minerals conglomerate Rio Tinto to build a lithium mine near the city of Loznica, in western Serbia.

Environmental organizations had staged a series of mass protests against the mine since November, closing major highways and otherwise putting pressure on the government. Last week, they secured a victory, when Prime Minister Ana Brnabic announced that the project would be scrapped.

As she announced the change of plans on Thursday, Brnabic denounced the organizers of the protest. She accused them of acquiring money for their activities from foreign funders, whom she called hypocrites.

Most of the funding, she claimed, had come from the US, Great Britain, Germany, and Austria through nonprofit organizations such as the Rockefeller Foundation, USAID, the Westminster Foundation for Democracy, the British Council and the Heinrich Böll Foundation.

The US, the UK, and Germany rejected the allegations, saying that Brnabic’s claims were “damaging” and did not “reflect our partnership with Serbia.”The three nations said in a joint statement on Friday that they had been “among its most generous and reliable partners and friends, providing assistance funding totaling well over €3 billion [$3.4 billion].” They denied having had a hand in “funding or directing actions specifically targeting the Serbian government or any of its policies,” including through the provision of funds for protests.

In an interview on Saturday, Vucic said the prime minister had fought for the wellbeing of the Serbian people by supporting the lithium mine project, but could not overcome the resistance from those who had sought to put a stop to the project by whipping up public opposition. In the end, the government had had to yield to the demands of the people, he said.

Had the project been implemented, the Jadar mine would have been one of the largest of its kind in the world. Rio Tinto had pledged €2.4 billion ($2.7 billion) in investment and promised to use local labor for construction and create around 1,000 permanent jobs that would predominantly go to local workers.

The multinational had expected production to start in 2027, turning Serbia into a major supplier of raw materials for manufacturing lithium-ion batteries – the core element in the global transition to electric vehicles and renewable energy.

Covid Man-Made Says Professor Who Found ‘Unique Fingerprints’

via Zero Hedge

University of London professor Angus Dalgleish, who co-authored a paper in summer 2020 after spotting “unique fingerprints” in Covid-19 samples that point to genetic manipulation, says that he’s been the victim of a “disgusting whitewash,” and that anyone suggesting a non-natural origin for Covid-19 has been silenced by peers.

“This goes back to the days of Copernicus and Galileo – it is the death of science,” said the oncologist – who in 1984 discovered how HIV enters and kills cells.

Dalgleish’s work was roundly rejected by a string of journalists before it was eventually published in a ‘watered-down form,’ according to the Express.

In February 2020, the Lancet had published a letter that “strongly condemned conspiracy theories” suggesting that Covid-19 does not have a natural origin. This highly influential letter – subsequently cited in thousands of scientific publications – was signed by 27 experts including Wellcome Trust head and former Sage member Sir Jeremy Farrar.

However, it has since emerged that two weeks before the letter was published, Sir Jeremy stated in private emails that some senior scientists believed a ‘likely explanation’ was that the virus was man-made. -Express

Indeed, Farrar led a February 1, 2020 teleconference (one day after Farrar emailed Anthony Fauci about a Zero Hedge article suggesting Covid may have come from the Wuhan Institute of Virology) – in which one virologist was “80 percent sure this thing had come out of a lab,” with others sharing his view.

Jeremy Farrar

Dalgleish is the author of a book on Covid which claims the virus has “no credible natural ancestor.” He says his team found amino acids within the Covid-19 spike protein with a positive charge – allowing the virus to cling to negative parts of the body.

But it was highly unusual to find so many positive charges in a row because they also repel each other, he said.

“We realised when they released the sequence of the virus it broke the laws of physics for a natural virus meaning it was genetically modified.

“At the time my position was supported by Sir Richard Dearlove, the former head of MI6 who now chairs the University of London board of trustees.”

However, when they tried to publish their work they were turned down by numerous papers, including the Lancet.

“My paper was rejected within five hours”, he said. “Normally it takes three weeks before it is even peer reviewed.” -Express

According to Dalgleish, “It was a political decision for this to be suppressed,” adding that after the paper was released, “I was ostracised. I was fearful – really frightened at the way I was being treated.”

“I was told I was not an expert on coronavirus’ and should just shut up. People tried to push us away. We were told our theory had no rationale and it was a conspiracy theory. I am so angry about this. I have more virus papers cited than most virology experts and they tried to push me aside.

“They did not even look at the science. It was obvious it was a gain of function escape from a lab and I say escape, but that is generous. We had this data in late February after the sequences were released.

This has been a whitewash. This whole thing has killed science. Science is meant to look at evidence. It is truly unbelievable.

According to Jacques van Helden, a bioinformatics professor at Aix-Marseille University in France, Peter Daszak’s February 2020 Lancet letter effectively shut down debate over the origins of Covid-19.

“By labelling anyone with different views a conspiracy theorist, the Lancet letter was the worst form of bullying in full contravention of the scientific method,” said van Helden,” adding “To say that something has leaked from a lab does not make it a conspiracy theory.”

“Why was that letter signed by so many people? Why can’t we discuss this issue in a scientific journal? I do not want to have to resort to an open exchange on Twitter.”

Judas Goat is the Satanic Symbol. Is that Dr. Fauci?

A Judas goat is a trained goat used in general animal herding. The Judas goat is trained to associate with sheep or cattle, leading them to a specific destination. In stockyards, a Judas goat will lead sheep to slaughter,[1] while its own life is spared. Judas goats are also used to lead other animals to specific pens and onto trucks. They have fallen out of use in recent times,[citation needed] but can still be found in various smaller slaughterhouses in some parts of the world, as well as conservation projects.[2]

Cattle herders may use a Judas steer to serve the same purpose as a Judas goat. The technique, and the term, originated from cattle drives in the United States in the 1800s.[3][4][5]

The term is a reference to Judas Iscariot, an apostle of Jesus Christ who betrayed Jesus in the Bible.

Eliphas Levi‘s Sabbatic Goat (known as The Goat of Mendes or Baphomet) has become one of the most common symbols of Satanism.[64

 

Antibody Neutralizing ALL Covid Variants Found, Chinese Scientists Claim

via RT

Note from Editor: Is that why Bill Gates now is talking about the smallpox epidemic?

Chinese scientists claim to have isolated an antibody which can effectively neutralize all strains of Covid-19, referencing both lab experiments and those performed on a living organism.

In a study published on Tuesday, Chinese scientists from a variety of institutions, including Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou and Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, suggested that they may have the panacea to the Covid-19 pandemic.

The authors claim that monoclonal antibody 35B5 has been shown in both in vitro (laboratory or test-tube experiment) and in vivo (performed on living organism) studies to neutralize wild-type Covid-19 (without mutations) as well as variants of concern (VOCs). The in vivo tests were carried out on humanized mice.

The scientists noted that the antibody also works on the highly mutated Delta variant, which has been responsible for deadly waves of infection around the world since it first emerged in India earlier this year.

“35B5 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 [Covid-19] by targeting a unique epitope [part of the antigen molecule which the antibody attaches itself to] that avoids the prevailing mutation sites,” the study explains. In other words, 35B5 targets a unique part of the virus that does not change during the mutation process.

By targeting part of the virus which is not impacted by the mutations identified in circulating VOCs, antibody 35B5 demonstrated capacity for “pan-neutralizing efficacy” across multiple strains. These findings, the scientists argue, could be “exploited for the rational design of a universal SARS-CoV-2 [Covid-19] vaccine.”

The part of the antigen targeted by antibody 35B5 is also present in the Omicron variant, the researchers note.

The research could prove particularly valuable amid the spread of Omicron, which is highly mutated. Leaders and scientists around the world are concerned the mutant virus could evade vaccine-induced immunity and immunity gained from previous infection.

Chaos & Instability is Coming to Russia – Ex-Kremlin Mastermind Surkov

By Jonny Tickle
https://www.rt.com/russia/540960-ex-putin-aide-surkov-claims/

The threat of “irreversible destabilization” is growing in Russia, but the country should be careful not to set up risky “liberal experiments” that could easily fail, former presidential adviser Vladimir Surkov has claimed.

In an article for the online publication Actual Comment, Surkov used the analogy of entropy to describe how chaos increases in a closed system. According to him, a strong state is necessary to restrain what he dubbed as ‘social entropy’.

The former key official, once dubbed the Kremlin’s ‘grey cardinal’, held the post of assistant to the president until February 2020 and has served under Putin in various capacities since 1999. His time in the Kremlin is best remembered by the cottage industry it spawned in the West, in which foreign commentators often characterized him as the brains behind the entire operation. He is also often described as one of Putinism’s founding fathers, with some portraying him as responsible for the idea that the security state should come above individual freedoms.

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According to Surkov, the first twenty years of the 21st century have seen stability be successfully maintained, following the social chaos of the 1990s, pulling “the traumatized country out from under the rubble of perestroika.”

“These years will surely be remembered one day as a golden age,” Surkov said.

However, sooner or later, the country will see more and more chaos as the state fails to deal with the “much-maligned desires” of citizens. However, Surkov warned that the Russian state should not attempt to deal with growing unrest by opening up the political system, claiming that it could lead to “uncontrollable releases” of civil anger and “irreversible destabilization.”

Surkov’s latest warning against change in Russia, despite the potential for chaos, isn’t the first time that he has advised against any reformation in the political sphere.

Speaking to the Financial Times earlier this year, Surkov claimed that society has to be managed to find a “good compromise between chaos and order.”

“An overdose of freedom is lethal to a state,” he said. “Anything that is medicine can be poison. It is all about the dosage.”